Recent findings suggest that hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease are more common in adults who born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Several studies have shown that polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and apolipoprotein-E (Apo-E) are effective in developing the insulin resistance and also in increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. In present study, the frequencies of ACE, Apo-E gene polymorphisms, apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) mutation and lipid compositions were determined in full-term newborn infants with IUGR. Forty-four newborn infants who had completed 36 weeks of gestational age, 24 healthy infants and 20 with IUGR, were taken into the scope of the study. While total cholesterol (TC) and Apo-B concentrations in infants with IUGR was found to be significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and Apo-Al levels were similar (p > 0.05). An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with a significantly increased frequency was observed in the IUGR group (65%) as compared with the control group (33%) (p < 0.05). When the distribution of the Apo-E gene polymorphism (E2, E3 and E4) was studied, no difference was found between the IUGR and control groups with respect to frequency. No Apo-B gene mutation was identified in the study groups. In conclusion, we may suggest that I/D polymorphism is responsible, though in part, for the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Levels of total cholesterol and Apo-B are elevated in IUGR infants, suggesting a linkage between low birth weight and atherosclerosis. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.