This study was conducted to investigate the histopathological and biochemical effects of midazolam and etomidate, which are intravenous anesthetics used in surgical operations, on rat liver. There were 3 study groups each consisting of 9 animals: the control, midazolam, and etomidate groups. Midazolam and etomidate were administered 10 times with 1-day intervals. At the end of the study, tissues were taken for histological examination and biochemical analysis. We determined superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver. There was a slight increase in MDA level in the midazolam-exposed group when compared with the controls, and this was not statistically significant. However, SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in the midazolam group. We found slight damage in histological sections in parallel to biological findings. MDA levels were significantly increased in the etomidate group and SOD and CAT activities were also prominent in this group. More histological changes like hepatocyte degeneration, vascular congestion, and mononuclear cell infiltration were observed in the etomidate group and this was statistically significant. We can say that these intravenous anesthetic agents may cause dose-dependent damage in tissue. Therefore, we think that one must be cautious of the administration duration and dose levels of anesthetics during surgical operations.