In this study, the clinical efficacy of Carisolv (TM) system and the hand excavation method in the removal of occlusal dentine caries of primary molar teeth was evaluated. Both Carisolv system and hand excavation method were applied for the removal of caries on different teeth of the same children. After the removal of the caries, Dyract AP materials were used to restore the teeth. The clinical follow-up was made every 3 months within a year. The clinical evaluations of restorations were carried out in accordance with US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. To determine whether there was any statistical difference between the groups, chi-square analysis was used. During both excavation methods, pain occurrence and the need for anesthesia and the time spent were all recorded. The time spent for the removal of caries in Carisolv system and in hand excavation method was 9.03 +/- 4.14 min (mean +/- SD) and 7.34 +/- 3.41 min (mean +/- SD), respectively (P > 0.05). At the end of 1 year, differences between Carisolv and hand excavation groups in terms of marginal adaptation and secondary caries were found to be statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). During the removal of caries, certain children complained about pain both in Carisolv system and hand excavation method (7.1 and 35.7%, respectively). As a result, it can be argued that Carisolv system is effective in the removal of caries and causes minimum level pain occurrence. Compared to hand excavation, Carisolv system seems to be a promising restorative approach to remove occlusal caries in primary molar teeth. Studies of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings.