BACKGROUND: Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in clinical conditions such as trauma and shock as well as renal surgeries. Oxerutin is a member of the flavonoid family and possesses antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oxerutin has protective effects on RIRI. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham control group (n=8), RIRI group (n=10), and RIRI + oxerutin group (n=10). RIRI was achieved by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min, followed 1-h reperfusion period. Thereafter, blood samples and left kidney tissue samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical examination. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, creatinine, and cystatin C levels, which are indicators of kidney function, as well as tumor necrosis factor -alpha, which is an indicator of inflammation were analyzed in blood samples. Total antioxidant status and total oxidant status (TOS), which are indicators of oxidative stress were analyzed on renal tissues. The apoptotic index, an indicator of kidney damage, as well as histopathological changes were evaluated on renal tissues. RESULTS: The apoptotic index, TOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, BUN, and urea levels were lower in the RIRI + oxerutin group than in the RIRI group (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that the histopathological and biochemical properties of oxerutin protected rats from RIRI. CONCLUSION: The findings obtained in this study show that prophylactic administration of oxerutin has protective effects on apoptosis and renal failure caused by RIRI. Therefore, oxerutin can be used as an effective prophylactic agent in the treatment of RIRI.