The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). A total of 146 consecutive patients with rheumatic MS were screened. They were accepted to be in AF group and sinus rhythm group according to their rhythm in the baseline ECG. After screening, 38 patients were excluded due to hyperthyroidism (n = 13), chronic obstructive pulmary disease (n = 22), malignancy (n = 2) and romatoid arthritis (n = 1). Therefore, remaining 108 patients, 74 of whom in sinus rhythm (MS-SR) and 34 of whom in AF (MS-AF) constituted study population. Fourty age- and gender-matched patients constituted control group. Factors associated with development of AF in multivariable analysis included High sensitivity C reactive protein (P = 0.005; odds ratio, 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-8.22), N-terminal of brain natriuretic peptide precursor (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.06) and left atrial diameter (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.14). Present study suggests that High sensitivity C reactive protein, N-terminal of brain natriuretic peptide precursor and left atrial diameter are associated with development AF in patients with MS.