Variation in plant properties and essential oil composition of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruits during stages of maturity

Telci I. , Demirtas I., Sahin A.

INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, vol.30, no.1, pp.126-130, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.02.010
  • Page Numbers: pp.126-130


Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce Mil) is a major aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae. The study was conducted to determine variations of plant properties (fruit yield per plant, 1000-fruit weight), essential oil content and composition during four different maturation stages (immature, premature, mature and full mature) in sweet fennel fruit. Essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fruit yield per plant and 1000-fruit weight regularly increased from immature to mature periods, while essential oil content declined with fruit maturity. The content of trans-anethole, the main component, varied between 81.63% and 87.85%, and the variation was statistically insignificant during maturation stages. Some components, particularly monoterpenes, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, limonene, and alpha-terpinene, varied significantly (p < 0.05) during maturation stages. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.