Previously, it was demonstrated that antibody production against hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs) achieved in hemodialysis patients is suboptimal. Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depression is common among hemodialysis patients. This study evaluated whether HRQOL and depressive behavior are associated with antibody response against HBV surface antigen in hemodialysis patients. Depressive symptoms and HRQOL were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36), respectively. Patients were separated into non-seroconversion (anti-HBs antibody titers <10 IU/L) and seroconversion (anti-HBs antibody titers >10 IU/L) groups. Among 188 patients, 37 (19.7%) were diagnosed as nonresponsive to vaccination (anti-HBs antibody titers <101 U/L). Anti-HBs response is positively associated with Physical Component Summary Score of SF-36 (odds ratio: 1.44; P: 0.009) and albumin (odds ratio: 10.615, P: 0.007), and negatively with BDI score (odds ratio: 0.903, P: 0.007). We concluded that HRQOL and depression is closely related with antibody response following HBV vaccine in hemodialysis patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.