Concrete anisotropy estimated from ultrasonic signal amplitudes


MATERIALS TESTING, vol.63, no.12, pp.1164-1173, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 63 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/mt-2021-0053
  • Title of Journal : MATERIALS TESTING
  • Page Numbers: pp.1164-1173
  • Keywords: Water-saturated concrete, ultrasonic P and S wave signals, fast fourier transform, amplitude anisotropy, amplitude ratio, velocity anisotropy, REINFORCED-CONCRETE, ELASTIC-ANISOTROPY, PREDICTION


The anisotropy of concrete is an essential issue in the construction industry. In this study, for the first time, ultrasonic compression and shear wave signals have been investigated for the orthogonal directions of unreinforced concrete by means of fast Fourier transformation (FFT). For this purpose, cubic concrete samples were prepared in 12 designs of different strengths for ultrasound transmission measurements. The characteristic amplitudes at dominant frequencies were determined by the FFT of these signals. The FFT amplitude differences in the compression and the shear wave signals on the orthogonally oriented surfaces provide essential information about the presence and degree of anisotropy. According to linear regression analysis, the FFT amplitude anisotropies and the amplitude ratios of the compression and shear waves decreased significantly according to increasing concrete strength. In addition, it was found that the anisotropy and the ratio of the FFT amplitudes increased proportionally to the water/cement ratio, the porosity and the water content of the various concrete designs.