This study aims to examine the effectiveness of argumentation-based concept cartoons on students understanding of global warming, ozone layer depletion, and acid rain, compared to a traditional teaching approach. Research participants were 47 ninth graders from a public high school in Turkey. One class was randomly selected as the treatment group, in which argumentation-based concept cartoons were used; the other was the control group, in which traditional teaching methods were used. The data were obtained through a Likert-type survey instrument including 30 items. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups, in favour of the experimental group, in terms of students post-test achievements. Results show that the traditional teaching approach, which has long been used internationally, neither supports students to achieve deeper understanding of science nor supports their personal skills. Findings of the present research suggest that using concept cartoons in argumentation-based activities may play a key role in promoting students conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning skills through encouraging dialogic interactions between students. The results of this research are important for researchers and teacher development because they shed light on how to design a specific intervention in science education.