The study aimed at quantifying the rates of soil CO2 efflux under the influence of common tillage systems of moldboard plow (PT), chisel plow (CT), rotary tiller (RT), heavy disc harrow (DT), and no-tillage (NT) for 46 days in October and November in a field left fallow after wheat harvest located in southern Turkey. The NT and DT plots produced the lowest soil CO2 effluxes of 0.3 and 0.7 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively, relative to the other plots (P < 0.001). Following the highest rainfall amount of 87 mm on the tenth day after the tillage, soil CO2 efflux rates of all the plots peaked on the 12th day, with less influence on soil CO2 efflux in the NT plot than in the conventional tillage plots. Soil evaporation in NT (64 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) was significantly lower than in the PT (85 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) and RT (89 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) tillage treatments (P < 0.01). The best multiple-regression model selected explained 46% of variation in soil respiration rates as a function of the tillage treatments, soil temperature, and soil evaporation (P < 0.001). The tillage systems of RT, PT, and CT led, on average, to 0.23, 0.22, and 0.18 g m(-2) h(-1) more soil CO2 efflux than the baseline of NT, respectively (P <= 0.001).