Karayemis (Prunus laurocerasus L.) is included in the Rosaceae family, Prunoideae sub-family, Prunus genus. Like for many other fruits, Anatolia is the origin of karayemis. This species is naturally found in Caucasia, East Black Sea, North and East Marmara and Taurus mountains. The height of the karayemis plant is 2-6 m, and evergreen. The flower of karayemis is white in color and the fruit is black and red in color just like sweet cherry. Fruits are connected to clusters which are 10-20 cm long. In growing areas of Turkey (East Black Sea region), it is consumed by the people as a fresh fruit, also evaluated as dried, pickled, jam and stewed fruit. Because of being an evergreen plant, it is used as an ornamental plant in parks, also having many chemicals in young shoots, fruits and seeds it is used in pharmacology extensively. Except for the Black Sea region, karayemis is a new fruit species for Turkey and the world. Recently new fruits are always interesting for the world markets and for our country and have high prices such as kiwifruit and some tropical fruits. In our country, the origin of karayemis, important economic advantages will be gained by introducing karayemis to inner and outer markets. Such as in other fruit species originated in our country, also in karayemis, most important genetic resources are being depleted. Therefore, to preserve these resources, precautions have to be taken immediately.