Recently, Turkey has been hit by several moderate to large earthquakes that resulted in significant loss of life and property. The 1998 Adana and 1999 Marmara earthquakes caused severe damage not only in residential buildings but also in industrial buildings. Most of the industrial buildings in Turkey are constructed as prefabricated structures. Prefabricated structures are preferred because of their economic and rapid production. In the present study, the earthquake behavior and infill wall effects for single story hinged industrial prefabricated buildings were investigated. Nonlinear pushover, performance-based, time history, and fragility analyses were carried out for a sample prefabricated industrial building. Infill wall effect was investigated by adopting a diagonal strut model. The structural behavior and load-deformation relationship of prefabricated industrial buildings both with and without infilled walls were evaluated and compared. Results of the study show that masonry infill walls can affect the lateral load-carrying capacity and modify the earthquake response of prefabricated industrial buildings. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000148. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.