Calorie restriction (CR) has attracted increased interest since CR enhances lifespan and alters age-related decline in hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. Obesity is associated with poor neurocognitive outcome including impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities such as learning and memory. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are linked to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, which may be stabilized by CR. In the present study, we aimed to establish the effects of CR on NMDARs in CA1 region of hippocampus in obese and non-obese rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined as a marker for lipid peroxidation (LPO) in hippocampus. Four groups were constituted as control group (C, n = 9), obese group (OB, n = 10), obese calorie-restricted group (OCR, n = 9), and non-obese calorie-restricted group (NCR, n = 10). OCR and NCR were fed with a 60% CR diet for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of CR, the MDA levels significantly decreased in the calorie-restricted groups. Obesity caused significant decreases in NR2A and NR2B subunit expressions in the hippocampus. The hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels significantly increased in the OCR group compared with the OB group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels significantly decreased in the NCR group compared with the C group (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress can be prevented by CR, and these data may provide a molecular and cellular mechanism by which CR may regulate NMDAR-mediated response against obesity-induced changes in the hippocampus.