The most important cause of anemia in CKD is relative deficiency of erythropoietin (EPO) secretion from the diseased kidney and EPO therapy has become the standard treatment for anemia of CKD. However, some patients do not respond well to erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), so-called ESA resistance. One of the most important causes of ESA resistance is chronic inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. ESA hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI), calculated as the weekly dose of EPO divided by kilograms of body weight divided by the hemoglobin level, and has been considered useful to assess the EPO resistance. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR) ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were also found to be associated with inflammation in HD patients. However, the relationship between NLR, PLR and EHRI has not been investigated before. HD patients underwent medical history taking, physical examination, calculation of dialysis adequacy and biochemical analysis and calculation of EHRI. Logarithmically converted EHRI (logEHRI) was correlated only with hemoglobin (r -0.381, P< 0.0001) and PLR (r= 0.227, P=0.021) but not with NLR. Comparison of PLR among 25th, 50th and 75th percentile of EHRI showed that PLR levels increased going from the 25th to 75(th) percentile (P=0.032). Posthoc analysis revealed that 25-75th percentile (P=0.014) and 50-75th percentile (P=0.033) were different with respect to PLR. In linear regression analysis, PLR (standardized = 0.296, confidence interval: 0.000-0.001, P=0.003) was independently associated with logEHRI. We found that PLR was independently associated with EHRI in HD patients. PLR, which is quite a simple and cheap method, may guide clinicians for detecting EPO resistance.