ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT ORGANIZATIONS AFTER THE BATTLE OF SOLFERINO


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Keskinbora H. K. , İnce F.

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WAR STUDIES , Ankara, Turkey, 29 October - 30 December 2021, pp.132-133

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Ankara
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.132-133

Abstract

ABSTRACT The Battle of Solferino in 1859 resulted in the victory of the Franco-Sardinian Alliance over Austria. More than 6,000 people were killed and 40,000 wounded in this battle, in which approximately 300,000 soldiers from both sides faced each other. As the health services of the armies were insufficient, the wounded were writhing in pain. Meanwhile, Swiss Henry Dunant, who came to Solferino to meet with the French Emperor due to his affairs in Algeria, was very impressed by the situation of the wounded and organized the people around to help the wounded. Dunant managed to draw people's attention to the pain and drama of wars with his book "A Memory of Solferino", published in 1863. With the efforts of Dunant and his supporters, the "International Society for Relief of the Military Wounded" was established on February 17, 1863. On August 22, 1864, the sign of the association was determined as red cross on a white background as the reverse of the Swiss flag. In 1875, it was renamed the "International Committee of the Red Cross". Dunant was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his outstanding efforts. The Ottoman Empire signed the contract of the association on July 18, 1865, but it remained distant for a while because its sign was the cross. Originally Hungarian (Karl Eduard Hammerschmidt), with the efforts of Physician Colonel Abdullah Bey, Association for Assistance to Wounded and Sick Soldiers was established on 11 June 1868. In the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War, known in history as the 93 War, the Ottoman State informed Switzerland that it would use the Red Crescent instead of the red cross in ambulances. Permanent use of the temporary red Crescent was allowed in 1907. This became official in 1929. Today, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; It has won hearts as an international humanitarian movement that acts with the aim of helping all people without allowing any discrimination. Dunant's birthday, May 8, is celebrated as International Red Cross and Red Crescent Day all over the world.