Hemoglobinopathies are a very important health problem in Turkey. To date many studies have been performed but there has been no national hemoglobinopathy control program (HCP). After the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) was created all centers, foundations, and associations were combined into one organization controlled by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The MOH and the TNHC have started to register the results of the screening of 377,339 healthy subjects from 16 different cities and the recorded average frequency of the beta-thalassemia trait was 4.3%. The highest prevalence of the beta-thalassemia trait (13.1%) was found in the Antalya region and of the HbS trait (10%) in the Cukurova region. Next, written regulations for the Fight against Hereditary Blood Disease were published especially for preventing and treating hemoglobinopathies. The MOH and the TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with a high birth prevalence of severe hemoglobinopathies. The hemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set up, a guidebook was published and a national HCP was started in these high-risk provinces. Copyright (C) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.