Increase in serum and salivary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels with increased periodontal inflammation.


Tan A., Gürbüz N., Özbalci F., Koşkan Ö., Yetkin A.

Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB, vol.28, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1590/1678-7757-2020-0276
  • Title of Journal : Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB
  • Keywords: Gingivitis, Innate immunity, Inflammation, Periodontitis, PERI-IMPLANT DISEASES, INFLAMED SURFACE-AREA, 2017 WORLD WORKSHOP, CONSENSUS REPORT, CYTOKINE LEVELS, BIOMARKERS, INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA, CLASSIFICATION, OBESITY, INDEX

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to determine serum and salivary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and evaluate NGAL correlation with key anti-interleukin 10 (IL-10) and pro -inflammatory (IL-1 beta) cytokines in different severities of periodontal diseases. We also calculated the systemic inflammation using the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) to evaluate its correlation with NGAL in the study groups. Methodology: Eighty systemically healthy and non-smoking individuals were separated into four groups of 20: clinically healthy (Group 1), gingivitis (Group 2), stage I generalized periodontitis (Group 3, Grade A), and stage III generalized periodontitis (Group 4, Grade A). Sociodemographic characteristics and periodontal parameters were recorded, and PISA was calculated. The serum and salivary levels of interleukin (IL) -1 beta, IL-10, and NGAL were determined using the enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We observed a significant increase in serum and salivary NGAL levels from healthy to periodontitis groups (p=0.000). Group 2 presented significantly higher serum and salivary IL-10 levels and salivary IL-1 beta levels than Group 3 (p=0.000). Serum and salivary parameters (IL-1 beta, IL-10, and NGAL levels) were strongly positively correlated to periodontal parameters and PISA values (p=0.000). Groups 2 and 3 showed overlapping PISA values. Conclusion: The overlapping PISA values found in Groups 2 and 3 suggest that gingivitis might progress to a systemic inflammatory burden somewhat comparable to stage I periodontitis. This finding is supported by the higher serum and salivary cytokines/mediators levels in the gingivitis group than in stage I periodontitis group. Serum and salivary NGAL levels increased proportionally to disease severity and PISA. NGAL seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, within the limitation of our study.