Aim: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation in the world and in our country still remains in place as a major problem. If the primary school-age children in the mild to moderate iodine deficiency is detected and treated are known to improve cognitive and motor function. The aim of this study was to determine the status of iodine deficiency in school children at Isparta province. Material and Method: The study enrolled a total of 400 students aged 7-12 without chronic disease. Children's anthropometric measurements, salt and drinking water preferences were recorded. Urinary iodine levels, was measured by spectrophotometry with Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Results: The 56.7% of the children were male and 43.3% female. The mean age was 8.7 +/- 1.2 years, mean height 131.8 +/- 10.7 cm and the mean weight was 29.7 +/- 7.2 kg. Children in 63.7% (254) had iodine deficiency and the majority of them (81.7%) had mild iodine deficiency. 57.4% of children with iodine deficiency were female and 42.6% male. 85% of these children was using iodized salt, 15% of non-iodised salt. The mean urinary iodine level of 400 children was 107,8 +/- 78,1 mu g/L. Anthropometric measurements in children with urinary iodine levels were significantly lower. Discussion: In our study we determined mild iodine deficiency in primary scholl age children in Isparta and we have found a statistically significant growth retardation in children with iodine deficiency.