ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thyroid diseases and regularly used medications on the sensitivity of Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) dual-phase parathyroid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to define indicatives of the result of the study.Patients and methodsOverall, 218 primary hyperparathyroidism patients (190 women, 28 men, mean age: 5714 years) with thyroid-parathyroid ultrasonography and Tc-99m MIBI dual-phase parathyroid SPECT were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were divided as follows: a positive SPECT group [119 (54.6%) patients] and a negative SPECT group [99 (45.4%) patients]. The effects of thyroid diseases and use of calcium channel blockers, -blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, oral antidiabetics, thyroid hormone preparates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and proton pump inhibitors on the sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI dual-phase parathyroid SPECT were investigated.ResultsThe frequency of NSAID usage was higher in the negative scan group (P<0.001). No significant difference was detected in terms of coexisting thyroid disease or usage of other medications. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of Tc-99m MIBI dual-phase parathyroid SPECT were calculated to be 89.6, 92.5, 94.1, and 86.9%. The sensitivity was low only in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (75.6%) compared with nonusers (96.5%). Logistic regression showed that ultrasonography was indicative of a positive scan and the possibility of a negative result was increased by regular usage of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio: 0.262, confidence interval: 0.128-0.538; P<0.001)ConclusionAmong various drug groups, NSAIDs may decrease the sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT and, provided that these novel data are supported by other studies, patient preparation may be modified to stop NSAIDs before Tc-99m MIBI dual-phase parathyroid SPECT.