Purpose of Review With the wide recognition of the importance of dietary patterns rather than isolated nutrient groups on health outcomes, numerous diet quality indices have been designed to evaluate the overall food intake quality in the last two decades. Recent Findings The newest version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), HEI-2015, is a diet quality index that measures adherence to the recommendations of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. While the key nutrient groups are included in most diet quality indices, differences in other components and the scoring system differentiate HEI. The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was recently introduced. Previous literature has confirmed the association of the older versions of HEI with metabolic syndrome, inflammatory markers, and negative health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and all-cause mortality. Summary This review presents the existing evidence on the association of HEI-2015 and HBI with health markers and long-term outcome, provides guidance on their use, and identifies persisting challenges such as the development of simple, unified, and objective tools to characterize healthy diets in routine clinical practice.