In this study, we aimed to observe whether curcumin (cur), a polyphenolic compound derived from the dietary spice turmeric, a yellow substance obtained from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, has any protective effect against blue light irradiation in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. For this purpose, we evaluated the intracellular calcium release mechanism, poly ADP ribose polymerase ( PARP), procaspase-3/-9 protein expression levels, caspase activation, and reactive oxygen species levels. ARPE-19 cells were divided into four main groups, such as control, cur, blue light, and cur + blue light. Results were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests as post hoc tests. The cells in cur and cur + blue light samples were incubated with 20 mu M cur. Blue light exposure was performed for 24 h in an incubator. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic-free Ca2+ [Ca2+](i) concentrations were higher in the blue light exposure samples than in the control samples; however, their levels were determined as significantly lower in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples than in the blue light samples alone. PARP and procaspase-3 levels were significantly higher in blue light samples. Cur administration significantly decreased PARP and procaspase-3 expression levels. Reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were lower in the blue light exposure samples, although they were higher in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples. Caspase-3 and -9 activities were lower in the cur samples than in the blue light samples. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) levels were significantly higher in the blue light exposure samples. In conclusion, cur strongly induced regulatory effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca2+ levels, VEGF levels, PARP expression levels, and caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in ARPE-19 cells.