KURAM VE UYGULAMADA EĞİTİM YÖNETİMİ, vol.16, no.1, pp.25-47, 2010 (Other Refereed National Journals)
Classroom management has been consistently regarded as the most serious
challenge pre-service and beginning teachers (Başar, 2006; Erdoğan, 2001;
Evertson and Weinstein, 2006; Jones, 1996; Weinstein, 1996). Student discipline
related issues have been among primary reasons for leaving the profession for may
teachers (Ingersoll, 2001). These studies indicate that managing student behavior is
one of the strong teacher stressors. One of the prerequisites for coping with this
stress is to have adequate knowledge and skills about possible incidents in the
classrooms and how they can be resolved in an effective manner.
The primary purpose of this study is to examine common classroom incidents by
means of analyzing pre-service teachers’ written stories of real classroom situations
from their educational experiences. The research questions were: (a) What were
the characteristics of classrooms in which reported incidents happened?, (b) What
kinds of incidents were frequently mentioned in the stories, (c) How did the
teachers react to incidents? and (d) How did the incidents and teacher reactions
effect the individuals?
This study was designed as a biographical inquiry. Data were collected through
documentation obtained in the form of written stories. Participants were 58 senior
students enrolled in the “Classroom Management” course during the 2008-Spring
semester at the Faculty of Technical Education, Suleyman Demirel University.
Senior students were asked to narrate an unforgotten classroom memoir in a
written story format. The stories were analyzed by using content analysis. The data
analysis process involved Miles and Huberman’s (1994) three fundamental
activities: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. Each researcher
examined some stories to determine salient concepts and thematic issues. Then,
researchers discussed their notes and then developed a consolidated coding list.
Each researcher used this list to code the stories. After sorting and summarizing the
coded data, categories were tabulated with frequencies and percentages. Finally,
categories and relationships among categories were interpreted.
The findings were grouped into four main themes. The first one was related to
the characteristics of classroom environments in which incidents took place. It was
found that unforgotten classroom incidents in the stories took place mostly in high
schools (45%), mathematics lessons (38%), and strictly-controlled classrooms
Sınıf Yönetiminde Karşılaşılan Olaylar
(45%). The second theme focused on the types of common classroom incidents.
The findings related to this theme were grouped into two sections as studentrelated
and teacher-related incidents. Most of the incidents were negative and
germane to disruptive/unwanted student behaviors. The first three most frequently
reported student-related incidents were “speaking and laughing loudly” (26%),
“neglecting lessons” (16%), and “being unsuccessful in the courses” (16%).
Teacher-related incidents included three negative ones as “being unfair” (2%),
“giving special attention to a student” (2%), “misunderstanding a student” (2%),
and one positive one as “being adequately interested in all students” (2%).
Teachers’ reaction to resolve classroom incidents was the third theme of the study.
The first three most frequent teacher reactions were “physical punishment” (34%),
“dealing with the student to solve the problem” (14%), and “shaking students’
confidence” (10%). The final theme that arose from the data analysis was the
consequences of the incidents on the individuals, which were grouped into three
parts as positive effects on the students, negative effects on the students, and
positive effects on the teachers. Exhibiting negative attitude towards the course
(24%) and the teacher (16%) and increasing the level of shyness (14%) were the
most frequently reported negative consequences whereas understanding his or her
mistake (12%), being successful (9%), and gaining positive attitude towards the
course (9%) were the positive ones. Understanding his or her mistake and
apologizing (5%) was the only consequence on teachers found in the stories.
This study indicated that teachers may encounter classroom management
challenges mostly in the classrooms with adolescent students (grade 8 to 12), in the
courses about which student are anxious and stressed (e.g. math), and in the
strictly-controlled classrooms. Therefore, these results suggest that students’ age,
motivation, and teachers’ classroom management strategies can be significant
factors in predicting management problems. The study also suggested that teachers
can encounter classroom incidents that are more likely related to disruptive student
behaviors or discipline problems. Teachers are more likely to use aggressive and
humiliating reactions to discipline problems rather than negotiation-oriented
approaches. Past research shows that application of punishment is not an effective
strategy for preventing from discipline problems, on the contrary, it is rather
associated with increased misbehavior and loss of motivation (Lewis, 2001; Lewis,
Romi, Qui and Katz, 2005). Similarly, in this study, generating negative attitude
towards both the course and the teacher appears to be the consequences of
aggressive teacher reactions to classroom incidents.
Bu biyografik nitel çalışmanın amacı, sınıf yönetiminde yaygın olarak
karşılaşılan olayların irdelenmesidir. Veriler dokümantasyon tekniği ile
toplanmıştır. Öğretmen adaylarından geçmişteki öğrenim yaşantılarında sınıf
ortamında karşılaştıkları ve unutamadıkları bir olayı yazılı kompozisyon
formatında hikâyeleştirmeleri istenmiş ve bu belgeler araştırmanın veri
dokümanları olarak kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen toplam 58 hikâyenin içerikleri
betimsel olarak çözümlenmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular, olayın
gerçekleştiği sınıf ortamının özellikleri, meydana gelen olay çeşitleri, olaylara
karşı öğretmen tepkileri ve yaşanan olayın birey üzerindeki etkileri şeklinde
dört ana tema altında özetlenmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda
öğrencilerin unutamadıkları sınıf olaylarının genellikle eğitim kademesi olarak
lise döneminde, ders türü olarak matematik dersinde ve sınıf davranış ortamı
olarak ise katı kontrollü sınıflarda gerçekleştiği görülmüştür. Olaylar genellikle
öğrenci kaynaklı olup “sınıfta konuşma ve gülme”, “derse karşı ilgisizlik” ve
“dersten başarısız olma” ilk üç sırada yer almıştır. Öğretmenlerin bu olaylara
tepkisinin ise genellikle olumsuz yönde olduğu ve sınıf ortamında çıkan
problemlere karşı etkili olamadıkları ortaya çıkmıştır.