Burning of the coal that occur around coal-fired power plants and also in many of the habitance during the winter season may affect human health as it contains natural radionuclides. In this study, the radioactivity of the different types of coal samples used in Turkey has been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometer which consists of a NaI (Tl) detector connected MCA, and possible health effect were estimated. The activity of U-238, Th-232, and K-40 radionuclids in coals have ranged from 35.95 to 110.37, 15.63 to 22.56, and from 135.59 to 321.90 Bq/kg respectively. To estimate health effect due to the activity of those radionuclids, the radium equivalent (Ra-eq), external hazard index (H-ex), absorbed dose (D) and effective dose rate (EDR) have been obtained. The results of this study can provide valuable information for risk assessment of the utilization of coal.