Hypertension that is considered idiopathic is called essential hypertension and accordingly has no clear culprit for its cause. However, basic research and clinical studies in recent years have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of essential hypertension. Of these, increased oxidative stress, both in the kidney and arterial wall, closely coupled with inflammatory infiltration now appear to have a prominent role. Discovery of regulatory and interleukin-17-producing T cells has enabled us to better understand the mechanism by which inflammation and autoimmunity, or autoinflammation, lead to the development of hypertension. Despite achieving considerable progress, the intricate interactions between oxidative stress, the immune system and the development of hypertension remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the pathophysiology of hypertension with a focus on the oxidant stress-autoimmunity-inflammation interaction.