Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatment for lung cancer has become increasingly more complex over the last several years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the treatment landscape of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are currently 3 approved checkpoint inhibitors for patients with NSCLC who progressed after platinum-doublet chemotherapy (Pembrolizumab and/or Nivolumab and/or Atezolizumab). Avelumab and durvalumab are currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. Pembrolizumab has now been approved for first-line use in NSCLC, after a trial showed improved survival compared with chemotherapy in patients who were positive for programmed cell death ligand 1. Giving our patients the best, personalized approach to their individual cancer can improve their quality of life and survival and help us use our limited resources most efficiently. In the present review, we provide a new patient-oriented algorithm to guide clinicians' decisions on the best choice of therapy for advanced NSCLC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.