Oleomargarine Production Using Hazelnut Oil-Carnauba Wax Mixture: Process Optimization and Characterization


Creative Commons License

Çevik Ş., Özkan G., Karacabey E.

Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, vol.6, pp.118-131, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

In this study, oleomargarine production was performed by using carnauba wax for the mixture of refined hazelnut oils enriched with virgin olive oil. The response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of the studied responses depending on the production parameters and for their optimization. Hardness and stickiness value (g force), oil binding capacity (%) and crystal formation time (min.) of the oleomargarines were determined. The oleomargarine process was optimized by using the response surface methodology, where the stickness and crystal formation time (CFT) were minimized and the oil binding capacity (OBC) (%) was maximized. By the way the optimum production formulation was determined. Acidity, peroxide values, fatty acid composition and DSC melting profiles were analyzed besides of hardness and stickiness value (g, force), oil binding capacity (OBC, %), crystal formation time (CFT, min). Meanwhile, in oleomargarines, the total phenolic compound and total sterol amounts were spectrophotometrically measured and tocopherol compositions were determined by HPLC. The ratio of oleogelator was found to be significant, since it causes some changes in the hardness and stickiness, CFT (min), and OBC (%) values of oleomargarines as well as physical properties including color values, melting and crystallization temperatures. Oleomargarine samples had higher values of melting and crystallization than the breakfast margarines, which were used as reference food materials. The fatty acid composition (%) of oils and oloemargarines were rich in terms of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas saturated ones were at low. When the margarine and oleomargarine samples were compared, the saturated fatty acid content of the oleomargarine samples were found to be significantly lower than the margarine samples. Enrichment with virgin olive oil differed the fatty acid composition, total phenolic content, β- sitosterol and tocopherol composition of oleomargarines depending on its addition ratio in mixture.