Human papillomavirus (HPV) is believed to cause cervical cancer. Thousands of women develop cancer and other diseases caused by HPV each year. HPV 16 and 18 types are found in approximately 70% of cervical cancers. Micronuclei are small chromosomal fragments that are considered indicators of DNA damage. AgNOR positive dots are useful for assessing proliferation. We investigated the relation between HPV-DNA, micronuclei and AgNOR in smear samples. Three groups were defined: HPV negative, 16/18 positive and other high-risk groups (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 66 and 68) (HR). After typing, micronuclei were identified by Papanicolaou staining and AgNOR regions were detected by silver staining. Serum reactive protein (CRP) also was measured. We found that the average age of HPV negative patients was significantly greater than for the HPV positive groups. We also found that CRP levels were significantly higher in the HPV 16/18 positive group than HPV negative and other HPV group. We found that the number of micronuclei in the HPV 16/18 group was significantly greater than for the HPV negative group. Also, we found that AgNOR staining for the HPV 16/18 group was significantly greater than for the HPV negative group. We found that CRP level, cell proliferation and genome instability were increased in HPV positive patients. The AgNOR and micronucleus tests were useful for evaluating cell proliferation and DNA damage.