Teaching programs based on contemporary learning-teaching approaches have been regulated since the 2005-2006 academic year in Turkey. Nevertheless, the researches conducted in Turkey suggested that teachers mostly use traditional teaching-learning approaches in their classroom activities. Therefore, this research aimed at enhancing the students' academic achievement through the use of argumentation and scenario based learning approaches among the contemporary teaching-learning approaches in order to guide teachers. Experimental design with pre-test and post-test control group was used in the present research. This research was conducted with 45 fourth grade primary school students. The research was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. Activities related to argumentation-based teaching were administered to the experimental group 1, activities with scenario-based learning method for the experimental group 2, and those of the existing curriculum for the control group. The research deployed an academic achievement test based on the unit of "Let's Solve the Riddle of Our Body". Independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used during data analysis. Research results revealed that the academic achievement of the students was significantly influenced by the activities related to argumentation-based teaching and scenario-based learning method.