The Etyemez coal field in the Kangal Neogene basin is an intra-cratonic basin, located south of Sivas (Central Turkey), was filled with continental sedimentary sequence, and contains important coal deposits with approximately 500 million short tons lignite reserves. This basin is surrounded by the sedimentary and ophiolithic pre-Neogene basement rocks and it contains several lignite deposits, particularly Etyemez and Kalburcayiri sites. This study was performed to investigate the underground structure, geological features and potential of the lignite deposits. In addition to, the growth fault effect on coal thickness and quality, tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the coal basin are other important goals of this present study. NE-trending normal fault systems have developed in marginal parts of the basin and influenced the thickness and distribution of the coal bearing Neogene sediments. These syn-sedimentary growth faults have controlled the thickness of the Neogene overburden sediments and coal seams in a lateral direction.