Phenological and ecological aspects of Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Greece

Stathas G. J. , Eliopoulos P. A. , Japoshvili G., Kontodimas D. C.

JOURNAL OF PEST SCIENCE, vol.82, no.1, pp.33-39, 2009 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 82 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10340-008-0216-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.33-39


The ecology of the coccid Protopulvinaria pyriformis infesting the laurel Laurus nobilis was studied from October 2003 to September 2005 in SW Greece. The coccid is parthenogenetic and oviparous, producing increased amounts of honeydew throughout the year. It settles mainly on the lower leaf surface. The scale over-winters as egg, 1st and 2nd instar nymph and adult and completes several overlapping generations every year. The life cycle was estimated to last in nature similar to 52 days during winter and 29-33 days during summer. Infestation density ranged between 0.3 and 2.8 live scales per cm 2 of leaf surface. Metaphycus helvolus was the only wasp found to parasitize P. pyriformis. Parasitism rate reached 31.2% during the second year of the study. The scale was able to resist parasitization by encapsulating the parasitoid's eggs. Maximum encapsulation rate was estimated up to 23% of the adult scales. Encapsulated eggs ranged from 1 to 5 eggs per adult scale. Predation rate reached 7% and it was attributed to the coccinellid Chilocorus bipustulatus. The above information could be important for planning a sustainable control strategy for this new pest in Greece.