SITUATION AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL APPLICATIONS FOR FOREST IN TURKEY


Akyol A. , SARIKAYA O.

APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, cilt.15, ss.341-353, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 15 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2017
  • Doi Numarası: 10.15666/aeer/1504_341353
  • Dergi Adı: APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.341-353

Özet

Pest insect species cause important economic losses in Turkish forests by feeding on various parts of forest trees. To combat them, control methods such as chemical, biotechnical, mechanical and biological applications are used. Among them, biological control is the most important method for the ecological aspect. Technically, the first biological control practice in Turkish forests was launched in the last part of the 1960s. This study aimed to evaluate current control methods for Turkish forestry. For this purpose, biological and chemical control applications in Turkey have been examined and compared. Necessary data were obtained from the 28 Regional Directorates of Forestry in Turkey using a developed data collecting method. Collected data were classified as insect production numbers, control areas and expenditures according to years. Subsequently, the total and unit costs were calculated and the gain and loss amounts obtained were estimated. Based on the comparison between chemical and biological control methods, chemical control is approximately 1.4 times more expensive than biological control in Turkey. This indicates that chemical control is causing economic loss in addition to ecological damages. In conclusion, the primary benefit of biological control is that it restores ecological balance and thus ensures the continuity of ecosystem services. The secondary benefit is savings from lower costs. Therefore, the use of biological control to mitigate damage from insects in forest ecosystems is important for the ecological and economic sustainability of forest ecosystems. To this end, predatory species such as Rhizophagus grandis Gyll, Rhizophagus depressus (F.), Formica rufa L., Calosoma sycophanta (L.) and Thanasimus formicarius (L.) have been used for biological control operations in Turkish forestry in recent years.