A novel antagonist of TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels: Carvacrol


Naziroglu M.

METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11011-021-00887-1
  • Journal Name: METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Carvacrol, Glutathione, Neurodegeneration, Oxidative stress, TRPM2, TRPV4, INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS, CA2+ ENTRY, MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION, ACTIVATION, CALCIUM, CELLS, MODULATION, METABOLISM, APOPTOSIS, MELATONIN

Abstract

The overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa(2+)) influx-mediated excessive generation of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological conditions induces neuronal and cellular injury via the activation of cation channels. TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels are activated by oxidative stress, and their specific antagonists have not been discovered yet. The antioxidant and anti-Covid-19 properties of carvacrol (CARV) were recently reported. Hence, I suspected possible antagonist properties of CARV against oxidative stress (OS)/ADP-ribose (ADPR)-induced TRPM2 and GSK1016790A (GSK)-mediated TRPV4 activations in neuronal and kidney cells. I investigated the antagonist role of CARV on the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in SH-SY5Y neuronal, BV-2 microglial, and HEK293 cells. The OS/ADPR and GSK in the cells caused to increase of TRPM2/TRPV4 current densities and overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa(2+)) influx with an increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic (cROS), and mitochondrial (mROS) ROS. The changes were not observed in the absence of TRPM2 and TRPV4 or the presence of Ca2+ free extracellular buffer and PARP-1 inhibitors (PJ34 and DPQ). When OS-induced TRPM2 and GSK-induced TRPV4 activations were inhibited by the treatment of CARV, the increase of cROS, mROS, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, cell death, cCa(2+) concentration, caspase -3, and caspase -9 levels were restored via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the treatment of CARV modulated the TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated overload Ca2+ influx and may provide an avenue for protecting TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated neurodegenerative diseases associated with the increase of mROS and cCa(2+).