The main aim of the study is to perform a high-precision mapping of geological features (lineaments and faults) using advanced gravity processing methods. The main techniques used for gravity data processing are the tilt angle of horizontal gradient (TAHG), the improved logistic filter (ILF), the fast sigmoid edge detector filter (FSF), and an edge detection filter based on the arcsine function (ASF). Before applying these edge detection filters to major geological units of North Cameroon, their effectiveness and performance have been assessed on synthetic gravity data and on random noise incorporated synthetic data. In addition, the Euler deconvolution has been used to estimate the position and depth of anomalous gravity sources in the study region. Using these edge detection techniques, a precise mapping of structural lineaments in the region has been established. It appears that the main structural features are trending along the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW directions. The deepest density anomalies in the region are identified in the NW–SE direction, which coincides well with the extension of the Central and West African rift system in the study area. The advanced edge detection techniques and the Euler deconvolution method have both identified a network of superficial lineaments around longitude 13oN and latitude 8oN, and located between 0 and 4 km depth. The NW–SE trending crustal features outlined in the northeast of the region indicate that the area would have been the target of a uniform tectonic activity. This study is crucial to improve the knowledge of the configuration of fractures network, and to a better exploitation of groundwater resources available in the region.