Appraisal of groundwater quality with WQI and human health risk assessment in Karamik wetland and surroundings (Afyonkarahisar/Turkey)


ŞENER E. , ŞENER Ş. , VAROL S.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10653-022-01282-0
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH
  • Keywords: Groundwater quality, Health risk, Drinking water, Karamik wetland, GIS, WATER-QUALITY, DRINKING-WATER, DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM, WEST-BENGAL, GIS, IRRIGATION, INDEX, CONTAMINATION, MANAGEMENT, RESOURCES

Abstract

Groundwater in Karamik wetland and surroundings, which is one of the important wetlands in Turkey, was examined and the chemical properties and quality of groundwater were determined in the present study. In addition, the possible risks to human health as a result of groundwater usage were investigated along with spatial analyses carried out using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Physicochemical analyses were carried out on 25 samples taken from groundwater. The dominant ions in the study area are Ca, Mg, and HCO3. When the results are compared with the limit values in the valid drinking water guidelines such as TSI-266 (Standards for drinking waters, 2005) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2011), the groundwaters were not suitable for use as drinking water in terms of NO3, Fe, Pb and As. The analysis results were evaluated together with GIS and Water Quality Index (WQI) methods. In the evaluations with the WQI method, 76% of the samples were in the "poor water" class. The groundwater in the study area is polluted by both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. For this reason, health risk assessment was performed due to the use of groundwater in the region by the local people in different areas, especially as drinking water, and the negative effects of water quality. Accordingly, there are non-carcinogenic negative effects on health in terms of NO3, As, Pb and Fe parameters from the use of groundwater by children. In addition, Pb and As concentrations are at carcinogenic levels for both children and adults in all groundwater samples collected from the study area. Therefore, it is not recommended to use groundwater as drinking water without treatment.