Rhazes’ (865-925 CE) Contribution to Surgery in Liber Almansoris

İnce F., Mahlooji K., Keskinbora H. K., Zargaran A.

ACTA CHIRURGICA BELGICA, vol.123, no.2, pp.212-217, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 123 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00015458.2022.2161035
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.212-217
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes



Surgery has deep historical roots. Rhazes (865-925 CE), a Persian physician, made a significant contribution to the development of medical sciences in the medieval era. Liber Almansoris is one of his significant works on medicine. This book is a medical textbook for medical students. It covers every aspect of the medical sciences. This article discusses Rhazes’ contribution to surgery, based on Liber Almansoris.


This study examines Rhazes’ contribution to surgery, based on his book, Liber Almansoris.


Rhazes’s Liber Almansoris contains a chapter (7th chapter) on orthopedics, which includes surgical approaches. This chapter also describes surgical procedures for traumas and skull fractures. In other chapters, he also recommends surgical options for treating certain complications when discussing different treatment methods.


Although Rhazes mentioned surgical procedures as a medical treatment method, he did not include a separate chapter on surgery. This strategy can be found in his other medical works, such as Liber Continens or Al-Hawi. It appears that Rhazes adheres to the Galenic (Greek) perspective on surgery. In this context, surgery is not an independent major but a method that a physician can employ as needed. It differs from an alternative approach in that era that adheres to ancient Persian perspectives, which identified surgery as a major like other medical sciences disciplines.