The cytogenetic aim of this study was to elaborately explain of the efficiency of salicylic acid (SA) on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by salinity stress in the barley apical meristems. The statistical analysis of the obtained findings indicated that salt stress caused a significant decrease in mitotic index of barley seeds depending on concentration increase, while the frequency of chromosomal abnormality increased. Likewise, it was determined that mitotic index value was decreased with alone SA treatment and chromosomal abnormalities were increased as well as. However, in the case of simultaneously application of SA and different salt concentrations, the highest salt concentration exhibited an excellent success according to low salt concentrations in alleviating the mitodepressive effect of salt stress by increasing mitotic index approximately two fold. Whereas, low salt levels in this application were more positive than in high salt levels in alleviating of the clastogenic effect of salt stress on chromosome structure and behaviors. Therefore, the results reveal that the protective role of SA against cytotoxic effects of salinity stress is more efficient at low salt concentrations.