Ischemic infarctions occur under the influence of genetic and environmental factors. In our study, the role of ischemia-modified albumin and thiol balance, which are new markers in determining oxidative damage together with MTHFR gene polymorphisms and homocysteine levels, in the development of SBI was investigated. White matter lesions in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of the patients were evaluated according to the Fazekas scale and divided into groups (Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3). Homocysteine, folate, B12, IMA, total thiol, and native thiol were measured by biochemical methods. The polymorphisms in MTHFR genes were investigated by the RT-PCR method. According to our results, a significant difference was found between the groups in age, homocysteine, folate, IMA, total thiol, and native thiol parameters (p < 0.05). When we compared the groups in terms of genotypes of the C677T gene, we found a significant difference in TT genotype between grades 0/3 and 1/3 (p < 0.05). We determined that homocysteine and IMA levels increased and folate levels decreased in CC/TT and CT/TT genotypes in the C677T gene (p < 0.05). Considering our results, the observation of homocysteine and IMA changes at the genotype level of the MTHFR C677T gene and between the groups, and the deterioration of thiol balance between the groups suggested that these markers can be used in the diagnosis of silent brain infarction.