Hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations of thermal waters in the Usak Area (Turkey)

Davraz A.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, vol.54, no.3, pp.615-628, 2008 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00254-007-0829-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.615-628
  • Keywords: hydrogeochemistry, thermal waters, isotope, Usak, Turkey, CHEMICAL GEOTHERMOMETRY, WESTERN ANATOLIA, GROUNDWATER, EQUILIBRIA, SYSTEMS, FIELD, SEA, GIS


Thermal waters of the Usak area have temperatures ranging from 33 to 63 degrees C and different chemical compositions. These waters hosted by the Menderes Metamorphic rocks emerge along fault lineaments from two geothermal reservoirs in the area. The first reservoir consists of gneiss, schists, and marbles of the Menderes Metamorphic rocks. The recorded reservoir is Pliocene lacustrine limestone. Hydrogeochemical studies indicate that thermal waters were mixed with surface waters before and/or after heating at depth. The results of mineral equilibrium modeling indicate that all the thermal waters are undersaturated at discharge temperatures for gypsum, anhydrite, and magnesite minerals. Calcite, dolomite, aragonite, quartz, and chalcedony minerals are oversaturated in all of the thermal waters. Water from the reservoir temperatures of the Usak area can reach upto 120 degrees C. According to delta O-18 and delta H-2 values, all thermal and cold groundwater are of meteoric origin.