Natural radioactivity of bricks and brick material in the Salihli-Turgutlu area of Turkey

Uyanik N. A. , UYANIK O., Gur F., Aydin I.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.68, no.2, pp.499-506, 2013 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 68 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-012-1754-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.499-506
  • Keywords: Natural radioactivity, Gamma ray spectrometry, Brick, Roof-tile, BUILDING-MATERIALS, RADON, CLAY


Some of the rocks and soil-originated materials used in building construction are the serious natural radiation sources. Soil-originated bricks and roof-tiles and their raw material in the Salihli-Turgutlu area were tested in situ for natural radiation levels using a gamma-ray spectrometer. The concentrations of the radioelements K-40, U-238 and Th-232 and air-absorbed radiation rates were measured for soil, raw material heaps, brick and roof-tile stacks and waste brick heaps. The radium-equivalent activity Ra-eq of the raw material varied between 187.9 and 216.4 Bq kg(-1). The external radiation hazard index H-ex values ranged between 0.51 and 0.58. For building material and its products, recommended Ra-eq and H-ex levels are 370 Bq kg(-1) and 1.0, respectively. On the other hand, both Ra-eq and H-ex values for waste brick heaps, containing broken brick pieces, coal pieces and ash, were higher than the recommended levels, i.e. Ra-eq values varied from 473.8 to 651.0 Bq kg(-1) and H-ex values were within the range 1.15-1.76. The annual dose rate and radium-equivalent activity values of the brick and roof-tiles were below the level of criteria. Annual dose rate ranged between 0.42 and 0.62 mSv y(-1) and radium equivalent activity was in the range 172.9-245.2 Bq kg(-1). The external and internal radiation hazard indices were all below the value of 1.0 for the Salihli-Turgutlu area bricks and roof-tiles. Results of this study were compared with results of previous studies. Natural radiation levels of construction raw material of study area are generally higher than of those of previous studies.