Melatonin is the main biochronologic molecular mediator of circadian rhythm and sleep. It is also a powerful antioxidant and has roles in other physiologic pathways. Melatonin deficiency is associated with metabolic derangements including glucose and cholesterol dysregulation, hypertension, disordered sleep and even cancer, likely due to altered immunity. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a key microvascular complication of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. DN is the end result of a complex combination of metabolic, haemodynamic, oxidative and inflammatory factors. Interestingly, these same factors have been linked to melatonin deficiency. This report will collate in a clinician-oriented fashion the mechanistic link between melatonin deficiency and factors contributing to DN.