It is known that boric acid (BA) exerts it antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by activating the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. This pathway has been reported to control antioxidant status in the eye. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of boric acid administration on oxidative damage and corneal neovascularization (CNV). Sixteen adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: (I) control (n = 8); the CNV model was applied to the right eye of the rats, and the left eyes were used as healthy controls. (II) CNV + BA (n = 8): After the CNV model was applied to the right eyes, a single subconjunctival dose (0.05 mL) of 0,018 g/mL BA was injected into the right and left eyes of the rats. Biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Moderate VEGF positivity was observed in the vessels of the CNV group, a decrease in vessel proliferation, and weak VEGF positivity in the CNV + BA group. The TAS level in the CNV + BA group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The TOS level was significantly higher in all groups than it is in the control group. The OSI value was increased in all groups when compared to the control group, but only the CNV and BA groups were statistically significant. BA not only reduced alkaline-induced corneal damage histologically but also showed a protective effect on oxidative stress biochemically.